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Readers also enjoyed. Bonfires on Midsummer's Eve were intended to deflect natural catastrophes or the influence of fairies, ghosts, and witches. Plants, often harvested under particular conditions, were deemed effective in healing. Black magic was that which was used for a malevolent purpose. This was generally dealt with through confession, repentance, and charitable work assigned as penance.
In Pope Alexander IV ruled that inquisitors should limit their involvement to those cases in which there was some clear presumption of heretical belief. The prosecution of witchcraft generally became more prominent throughout the late medieval and Renaissance era, perhaps driven partly by the upheavals of the era — the Black Death, Hundred Years' War, and a gradual cooling of the climate that modern scientists call the Little Ice Age between about the 15th and 19th centuries.
Witches were sometimes blamed. Dominican priest Heinrich Kramer was assistant to the Archbishop of Salzburg. In Kramer requested that Pope Innocent VIII clarify his authority to prosecute witchcraft in Germany , where he had been refused assistance by the local ecclesiastical authorities. They maintained that Kramer could not legally function in their areas. Golzer described Kramer as senile in letters written shortly after the incident. This rebuke led Kramer to write a justification of his views on witchcraft in his book Malleus Maleficarum , written in In the book, Kramer stated his view that witchcraft was to blame for bad weather.
The book is also noted for its animus against women. In the Spanish Inquisition cautioned its members not to believe everything the Malleus said. Portugal and Spain in the late Middle Ages consisted largely of multicultural territories of Muslim and Jewish influence, reconquered from Islamic control , and the new Christian authorities could not assume that all their subjects would suddenly become and remain orthodox Roman Catholics.
In the pogroms of June in Seville, hundreds of Jews were killed, and the synagogue was completely destroyed. One of the consequences of these pogroms was the mass conversion of thousands of surviving Jews. Forced baptism was contrary to the law of the Catholic Church, and theoretically anybody who had been forcibly baptized could legally return to Judaism. However, this was very narrowly interpreted.
Legal definitions of the time theoretically acknowledged that a forced baptism was not a valid sacrament, but confined this to cases where it was literally administered by physical force. A person who had consented to baptism under threat of death or serious injury was still regarded as a voluntary convert, and accordingly forbidden to revert to Judaism. In contrast to the previous inquisitions, it operated completely under royal Christian authority, though staffed by clergy and orders, and independently of the Holy See.
It primarily focused upon forced converts from Islam Moriscos , Conversos and secret Moors and from Judaism Conversos , Crypto-Jews and Marranos —both groups still resided in Spain after the end of the Islamic control of Spain —who came under suspicion of either continuing to adhere to their old religion or of having fallen back into it.
This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages; volume I by Henry Charles Lea. Book Cover. Download; Bibrec.
In all Jews who had not converted were expelled from Spain; those who converted became nominal Catholics and thus subject to the Inquisition. At its head stood a Grande Inquisidor , or General Inquisitor, named by the Pope but selected by the Crown, and always from within the royal family. Spain had expelled its Sephardi population in ; many of these Spanish Jews left Spain for Portugal but eventually were subject to inquisition there as well.
The Portuguese inquisitors mostly focused upon the Jewish New Christians i. The Portuguese Inquisition expanded its scope of operations from Portugal to its colonial possessions, including Brazil, Cape Verde , and Goa. In the colonies, it continued as a religious court, investigating and trying cases of breaches of the tenets of orthodox Roman Catholicism until Originally oriented for a religious action, the Inquisition exerted an influence over almost every aspect of Portuguese society: political, cultural, and social.
The Goa Inquisition , which began in , was initiated by Jesuit priest Francis Xavier from his headquarters in Malacca, originally because of the New Christians who were living there and also in Goa and the region whose population had reverted to Judaism. The Goa inquisition also focused upon Catholic converts from Hinduism or Islam who were thought to have returned to their original ways. In addition, this inquisition prosecuted non-converts who broke prohibitions against the observance of Hindu or Muslim rites or interfered with Portuguese attempts to convert non-Christians to Catholicism.
With the Protestant Reformation , Catholic authorities became much more ready to suspect heresy in any new ideas,  including those of Renaissance humanism ,  previously strongly supported by many at the top of the Church hierarchy. The extirpation of heretics became a much broader and more complex enterprise, complicated by the politics of territorial Protestant powers, especially in northern Europe.
https://wavendoca.ga The Catholic Church could no longer exercise direct influence in the politics and justice-systems of lands that officially adopted Protestantism. Bartholomew's Day massacre and the missional  and propaganda work by the Sacra congregatio de propaganda fide  of the Counter-Reformation came to play larger roles in these circumstances, and the Roman law type of a "judicial" approach to heresy represented by the Inquisition became less important overall.
It had the tasks of maintaining and defending the integrity of the faith and of examining and proscribing errors and false doctrines; it thus became the supervisory body of local Inquisitions.
The penances and sentences for those who confessed or were found guilty were pronounced together in a public ceremony at the end of all the processes. The wearing of two tongues of red or other brightly colored cloth, sewn onto an outer garment in an "X" pattern, marked those who were under investigation. The penalties in serious cases were confiscation of property by the Inquisition or imprisonment. This led to the possibility of false charges to enable confiscation being made against those over a certain income, particularly rich marranos.
Following the French invasion of , the new authorities sent 3, chests containing over , Inquisition documents to France from Rome. The wars of independence of the former Spanish colonies in the Americas concluded with the abolition of the Inquisition in every quarter of Hispanic America between and By decree of Napoleon's government in , the Inquisition in Venice was abolished in The last execution of the Inquisition was in Spain in